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David Wardle(brief bio) David Wardle works as a Professor of Soil and Plant Ecology, and his research explores the links between aboveground and belowground communities and their consequences for ecosystem functioning. Much of his research is field based, and includes work in Swedish boreal forest and subarctic tundra, and forests in New Zealand, Australia and elsewhere. Current projects focus on  ecosystem impacts of invasive biota; consequences of wildfire; ecological changes across successional, retrogressive and elevational gradients; aspects of island ecology; and the ecological role of forest understory vegetation. He has authored two books on aboveground-belowground linkages (published by Princeton University Press in 2002 and Oxford University Press in 2010), and around 230 publications of which around 20 have appeared in Science and Nature. He serves or has served on several editorial boards (including Science, Ecology and Ecology Letters), has been designated as a highly cited scientist and as among the world’s 20 most cited scientists in ecology and environmental sciences, and is an elected Fellow of the Royal Society of New Zealand and a Wallenberg Scholar. 



Current Position:
Professor of Soil and Plant Ecology
Current Research Activities - click here
Academic training
Professional activities and recognition
Current PhD students and postdocs
Former PhD students and postdocs
Contact information

 Academic training:

1990: PhD in Soil Ecology, University of Calgary, Canada
1986: BSc (first class honours), Canterbury University, Christchurch, New Zealand

 Professional activities and recognition:

Current Editorial work:
Science - Board of Reviewing Editors (2009-)
Journal of Ecology - Editorial Board (2013-)
New Zealand Journal of Ecology - Editorial Board (1997-)
Ideas in Ecology and Evolution - Editorial Board (2008-)

Previous Editorial work: 
Ecology and  Ecological Monographs - Board of Editors (2005-2013)
Pedobiologia - Editorial Board (1998-2014)
Ecology Letters - Receiving Editor (2001-2006) 
Soil Biology and Biochemistry - Subject Editor (1997 - 2002)
Biology and Fertility of Soils - Editorial Board (1999 - 2002)
New Zealand Journal of Ecology - Chief Editor (1998-2003).

Adjunct Positions:
Adjunct Professor - University of Canterbury, New Zealand
Affiliate Professor - University of Alaska at Fairbanks
Research Associate - Landcare Research, Lincoln, New Zealand
Recipient of a 'Wallenberg Scholar' award, 2011-2015 (one of 10 researchers in Sweden)
Recognised by ISI since 2006 as a "Highly Cited" scientist in the field of Ecology/Environment.
Fellow of the Royal Society of New Zealand (NZ's academy of the sciences); elected 2003.
Recipient of an inaugural SLU 'Excellence Award' (2006), NZ Ecological Society annual award (2001), NZ Association of Scientists Research Medal (1999).

 Current Postdocs and Ph.D. students advised or co-advised:

Ciska Veen (Postdoc). Project: East, West, Home's Best: Home-field advantage effects on the decomposition of plant litter.

Jordan Mayor (postdoc). Project: Ecosystem-level changes across elevational gradients.

Nathalie Pluchon (PhD student). Project: The influence of wildfire-derived charcoal on ecosystem carbon storage and fluxes (advisors: D. Wardle, M.-C. Nilsson, P. Kardol and M. Gundale)

Bright Kumordzi (PhD student). Project: The ecological significance of within-species leaf trait variability (advisors: D. Wardle, M.-C. Nilsson and M. Gundale).

Jonathan De Long (PhD student). Project: Aboveground-belowground linkages in northern boreal and subarctic communities (advisors: D. Wardle, M-C. Nilsson, E. Dorrepaal and R. Giesler).  

Babs Stuiver (PhD student). Project: Effect of understory vegetation on forest regeneration and response to disturbance (advisors: M.-C. Nilsson, M. Gundale and D. Wardle)

Anna Henriksson (PhD student). Project: Biotic resistance: Influence of species richness, saturation, and resistant species (advisors: G. Englund, J. Yu and D. Wardle; based at Umeå University)

Signe Lett (PhD student). Project: Moss traits predicting climate-warming induced forest expansion across tundra habitats (advisors, E. Dorrepaal, M.-C. Nilsson and D. Wardle; based at Umeå University)

 Former Postdocs and Ph.D. Students advised or co-advised:

Maja Sundqvist (PhD student 2007-2011; Postdoc 2011-2014)

Mel Durrett (PhD student, defended 2014; advisors: C. Mulder and D. Wardle)

Gregoire Freschet (postdoc 2011-2013)

Andrea Vincent (postdoc 2012-2013)

Stef Bokhorst
 (postdoc 2011-2013)

Johan Asplund (Postdoc 2011-2013)

Guillaume Bay (PhD student 2008-2013; advisors: M.-C. Nilsson, D. Wardle and U. Rasmussen)

Anne Tomlinson (PhD student, defended 2013, advisors: J. Beggs, D. Wardle and P. Johnson)

Benjamin Jackson (PhD student 2007-2012; advisors D. Wardle, M.-C. Nilsson and D. Peltzer).

Paul Kardol (postdoc 2009-2011)

Zhanfeng Liu (postdoc 2010-2011)

Sheel Bansal (postdoc 2009-2011; advisors M.-C. Nilsson and D. Wardle)

Micael Jonsson  (postdoc 2006-2009)

Fujio Hyodo (postdoc 2007-2009)

Camilla Esberg (PhD student 2006-2010; advisors R. Giesler, B. Graae and D. Wardle)

Hiroko Kurokawa (postdoc 2005-2007; advisors: D. Wardle and D. Peltzer)

Fiona Dearden (PhD student 2003-2007)

Helena Dehlin (PhD student 2002-2006; advisors: M-C Nilsson and D. Wardle)

Katja Ilmarinen (PhD student 2002-2006; advisors: J. Mikola and D. Wardle)

Tadashi Fukami (postdoc 2003-2005; advisors: D. Wardle and P. Bellingham)

Kate Orwin (PhD student 2000-2004; advisors: D. Wardle and L. Greenfield)

Wendy Williamson (postdoc 1999-2002)

Duane Peltzer (postdoc 2000-2001)

Lena Jonsson (postdoc 1998-1999; advisors: M.-C. Nilsson and D. Wardle)

Juha Mikola (postdoc 1998-1999)

Fabienne Charpentier (postdoc 1995-1996)

Lab rotation (visiting and collaborating) Postdocs and Ph.D students

Gregory Crutsinger (Ph.D. student, University of Tennessee, USA) (2007)

Ruth Gregg (Ph.D student, University of Lancaster, UK) (2006, 2007)

Enrique Doblas-Miranda (Ph. D. student, University of Granada, Spain) (2005, 2007)

Christien Ettema (Postdoc, Wageningen University, Netherlands) (2002)



(1) Bardgett, R. D. and Wardle, D. A. 2010. "Aboveground-Belowground Linkages: Biotic Interactions, Ecosystem Processes and Global Change". Oxford University Press (Oxford Series in Ecology and Evolution).

(2) Wardle, D. A. 2002. "Communities and Ecosystems: Linking the Aboveground and Belowground Components" Princeton University Press (Monographs in Population Biology series).

 - click here 
(NB: a few missing due to WoS database errors)

- click here


Asplund, J. and Wardle, D. A. (2014) Within-species variability is the main driver of community-level responses of traits of epiphytes across a long term chronosequence. Functional Ecology (in press).

Sundqvist, M. K., Liu, Z., Giesler, R. and Wardle, D. A. (2014) Plant and microbial responses to nitrogen and phosphorus addition across an elevational gradient in subarctic tundra. Ecology (in press)

Gundale, M. J., Kardol, P., Nilsson, M.-C., Nilsson, U., Lucas, R. W. and Wardle, D.A. (2014)  Interactions with soil biota shift from negative to positive when a tree species is moved outside its native range (Rapid Report)  New Phytologist 202: 417-421.
(commentary here and here)

Wardle, D. A. and Jonsson, M. (2014) Long-term resilience of above- and below-ground ecosystem components among contrasting ecosystems. Ecology (in press).

Asplund, J., Sandling, A., Kardol, P. and Wardle, D. A. (2014) The influence of tree-scale and ecosystem-scale factors on epiphytic lichen communities along a long-term retrogressive chronosequence. Journal of Vegetation Science (in press).

Freschet, G. T., Östlund, L., Kichenin, E. and Wardle, D. A. (2014)
Aboveground and belowground legacies of native Sami land-use on boreal forest in northern Sweden 100 years after abandonment. Ecology (in press). 

Kumordzi, B. B., Nilsson, M.-C., Gundale, M. J. and Wardle, D. A. (2014) Changes in local-scale intraspecific trait variability of dominant species across contrasting island ecosystems. Ecosphere 5: Article 26.

Vincent, A. G., Sundqvist, M.K., Wardle, D. A. and Giesler, R. (2014) Bioavailable soil phosphorus decreases with increasing elevation in a subarctic tundra landscape. PLoS ONE 9: e92942.

Pluchon, N., Gundale, M. J., Nilsson, M.-C., Kardol, P. and Wardle, D. A. (2014) Stimulation of boreal tree seedling growth by wood-derived charcoal: effects of charcoal properties, seedling species and soil fertility. Functional Ecology (in press).

Jeffery, S., Bezemer, T., Cornelissen, G., Kuyper, T., Lehmann, J., Mommer, L., Sohi, S., van de Voorde, T., Wardle, D. A. and van Groenigen, J. W. (2014) The way forward in biochar research: targeting trade-offs between the potential wins.
Global Change Biology – Bioenergy (in press)

Kardol, P., Dickie, I. A., St. John, M. G., Husheer, S. W., Bonner, K. I., Bellingham, P. J. and  Wardle, D. A. (2014) Soil-mediated effects of invasive ungulates on native tree seedlings. Journal of Ecology (in press).

Bokhorst, S., Wardle, D. A., Nilsson, M.-C. and Gundale, M. J. (2014)  The effect of plant species and functional group removal on soil arthropod communities along a boreal forest chronosequence.  Plant and Soil (in press).

McLaughlan, K., Higuera, P. E., Gavin, D. G., Perakis, S. S., Mack, M. C., Alexander, H., Battles, J., Biondi, F., Buma, B., Colombaroli, D., Enders, S., Engstrom, D. R., Hu, F. S., Marlon, R. R., Marshall, J., McGlone, M., Nane, L. E., Shuman, B. N., Smithwick, E., Urrego, D., Wardle, D. A., Williams, C. J. and Williams, J. J. (2014) Reconstructing disturbances and their biogeochenical consequences over multiple timescales. BioScience 64: 105-116.

Bokhorst, S. and Wardle, D. A. (2014) Snow fungi as a food source for micro-arthropods. European Journal of Soil Biology 60: 77-80.

Pietsch, K. A., Ogle, K., Cornelissen, J. H. C., Cornwell, W. K., Bönisch, G., Craine, J. M., Jackson, B. G., Kattge, J., Peltzer, D. A., Penuelas, J., Reich, P. B., Wardle, D. A., Weedon, J. T., Wright, I. J., Zanne, A. E. and Wirth, C. (2014) Global relationship of wood and leaf litter decomposability: the role of functional traits. Global Ecology and Biogeography (in press).

Meisner, A., Hol, W. H. G., de Boer, W., Krumins, J. A., Wardle, D. A. and van der Putten, W. H. (2014) Plant-soil feedbacks of exotic plant species across life forms: a meta-analysis. Biological Invasions (in press).  

Jackson, B. G., Peltzer, D. A. and Wardle, D. A. (2013). The within-species leaf economic spectrum does not predict leaf litter decomposability at either the within-species or whole community levels. Journal of Ecology 101: 1409-1419

Sundqvist, M. K., Sanders, N. J. and Wardle, D. A. (2013) Community and ecosystem responses to elevational gradients: processes, mechanisms and insights for global change. Annual Reviews of Ecology, Evolution and Systematics 44: 261-280.

Wardle, D- A. (2013) Drivers of decoupling in drylands. Nature 502: 628-629.

Clemmensen, K. E., Bahr, A., Ovaskainen, O., Dahlberg, A., Ekblad, A., Wallander, H., Stenlid, J., Finlay, R. D., Wardle, D. A. and Lindahl, B. (2013) Roots and associated fungi drive long term carbon sequestration in boreal forest. Science 339: 1615-1618.
(commentaries here and here)

Kichenin E., Wardle D.A., Peltzer D.A., Morse C.W., Freschet G.T. (2013) Contrasting effects of plant inter- and intraspecific variation on community-level trait measures along an environmental gradient. Functional Ecology 27: 1254-1261.

Bay, G., Nahar, N., Oubre, M., Whitehouse, M., Wardle, D. A., Zackrisson, O., Nilsson, M.-C. and Rasmussen, U. (2013) Boreal feather mosses secrete chemical signals to gain nitrogen. (Rapid Report) New Phytologist 200: 54-60.
(commentary here).

Wardle, D. A., Gundale, M. J., Jäderlund, A. and Nilsson, M.-C. (2013) Decoupled long term effects of nutrient enrichment on aboveground and belowground properties in subalpine tundra. Ecology 94: 904-919.

Jackson, B. G., Peltzer, D. A. and Wardle, D. A. (2013) Are functional traits and litter decomposability coordinated across leaves, twigs, and wood? A test using temperate rainforest tree species (Editor's Choice). Oikos 122: 1131-1142.

Laliberté, E., Grace, J. B., Huston, M. A., Lambers, H., Teste, F. P., Turner, B. L. and Wardle, D. A. (2013) How does pedogenesis drive plant diversity? Trends in Ecology and Evolution 28: 331-340.

Asplund, J., Bokhorst, S. B. and Wardle, D. A. (2013) Secondary compounds can reduce the soil micro-arthropod effect on litter decomposition. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 16: 10-16

Asplund, J. and Wardle, D. A. (2013) The impact of secondary compounds and functional characteristics on lichen palatability and decomposition. Journal of Ecology 101: 689-700.

Freschet G.T., Cornwell W.K., Wardle D.A., Elumeeva T.G., Liu W., Jackson B.G., Onipchenko V.G., Soudzilovskaia N.A., Tao J., Cornelissen J.H.C. (2013) Linking litter decomposition of above and belowground organs to plant-soil feedbacks worldwide. Journal of Ecology 101: 943-954.

Bokhorst, S., Metcalfe, D. B and Wardle, D. A. (2013) Reduction in snow depth negatively affects decomposers but impact on decomposition rates is substrate dependent. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 62: 157-164.

Simberloff, D., Martin, J.-L., Genovesi, P., Maris, V., Wardle, D. A., Aronson, J.,  Courchamp, F., Galil, B., García-Berthou, E., Pascal, M., Pyšek, P., Sousa, R., Tabacchi, E., and Vilà, M. (2013) Impacts of biological invasions - what’s what and the way forward. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 28: 58-66.

Dias, A. T. C., Krab, E. J., Mariën, J., Zimmer, M., Cornelissen, J. H. C., Ellers, J., Wardle, D. A. and Berg, M. P. (2013) Traits underpinning desiccation resistance explain distribution patterns of terrestrial isopods. Oecologia 172: 667-677.

Lagerström, A., Nilsson., M.-C. & Wardle, D. A. (2013) Decoupled responses of tree and shrub leaf and litter trait values to ecosystem retrogression across an island area gradient. Plant and Soil 367: 183-197.

Hyodo, F., Kusaka, S., Wardle, D. A. and Nilsson, M.-C. (2013) Changes in stable nitrogen and carbon isotope ratios of plants and soil across a boreal forest fire chronosequence. Plant and Soil 367: 111-119.

Jackson, B. G., Nilsson, M.-C. and Wardle, D. A. (2013) The effects of the moss layer on the decomposition of intercepted vascular plant litter across a post-fire boreal forest chronosequence. Plant and Soil 367: 199-214.

Van der Putten, W. H., Bardgett, R. D., Bever, J. D., Bezemer, T. M., Casper, B. B., Fukami, T., Kardol, P., Klironomos, J. N., Kulmatiski, A., Schweitzer, J. A., Suding, K. N., Van de Voorde, T. and Wardle, D. A. (2013) Plant-soil feedback: the past, the present and future challenges. Journal of Ecology 101: 265-276.

Wisz, M., Pottier, J., Kissling, W., Pellissier, L., Lenoir, J., Damgaard, C., Dormann, C., Forchhammer, M., Grytnes, J.-A., Guisan, A., Heikkinen, R., Høye, T., Kühn, I., Luoto, M., Maiorano, L., Nilsson, M-C., Normand, S., Öckinger, E., Schmidt, N., Termansen, M., Timmermann, A., Wardle, D. A., Aastrup, P. and Svenning, J.-C. (2013) The role of biotic interactions in shaping spatial distributions and realised assemblages of species: implications for species distribution modeling. Biological Reviews 88: 15-30.

Freschet G. T., Bellingham P. J., Lyver P. O’B., Bonner K. . and Wardle D.A. (2013) Plasticity in above- and belowground resource acquisition traits in response to single and multiple environmental factors in three tree species. Ecology and Evolution 4: 1065-1078.

Peay, K., Dickie, I. A., Wardle, D. A.,Bellingham, P. and Fukami. T. (2013) Rat invasion of islands alters fungal community structure, but not wood decomposition rates. Oikos 122: 258-264.

Bokhorst, S. and Wardle, D. A. (2013) Microclimate within litter bags of different mesh size: implications for the ‘arthropod effect’ on litter decomposition. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 58: 147-152.

Bellingham, P. J., Morse, C. W., Buxton, R. P., Bonner, K. I., Mason, N. H. W. and Wardle, D. A. (2013). Litter fall and litter nutrient concentrations in a New Zealand temperate montane rain forest, and relationships with altitude, forest succession, and soil nutrients. New Zealand Journal of Ecology 37: 162-171.

Sutherland, W. J., Freckleton, R. P., Godfray, H. C. J., Beissinger, S. R., Benton, T.,  Cameron, D. C., Carmel, Y., Coomes, D. A., Coulson, T., Emmerson, M. C., Hails, R.,  Hays, G. C., Hodgson, D. J., Hutchings, M. J., Johnson, D., Jones, J. P., G., Keeling, M. J., Kokko, H., Kunin, W. E., Lambin, X.., Lewis, O. T., Malhi, Y., Mieszkowska, N.,  Milner-Gulland, E. J., Norris, K., Phillimore, A. B., Purves, D. W., Reid, J. M., Reuman, D. C., Thompson, K., Travis, J. M. J., Turnbull, L. A., Wardle, D. A., and Wiegand. T. (2013) Identification of 100 fundamental ecological questions.
Journal of Ecology 101: 58-67.


Wardle, D. A., Jonsson, M., Bansal, S., Bardgett, R. D., Gundale, M. J. and Metcalfe, D. B. (2012) Linking vegetation change, carbon sequestration and biodiversity: insights from island ecosystems in a long term natural experiment. Journal of Ecology 100: 16-30.
(commentary here)

Gundale, M. J., Hyodo, M., Nilsson, M.-C. & Wardle, D. A. (2012) Nitrogen niches revealed through species and functional group removal in a boreal shrub community. Ecology 93: 1695-1704.
(cover picture here)

Cardinale, B. J., Duffy, J. E., Gonzalez, A., Hooper, D. U., Perrings, C., Venail, P., Narwani, A., Mace, G. M., Tilman, D., Wardle, D. A., Kinzig, A. P., Daily, G. C., Loreau, M., Grace, J. B., Larigauderie, A., Srivastava, D. and Naeem, S. (2012) Biodiversity loss and its impact on humanity. Nature 486: 59-67.

Wardle, D. A. (2012) On plummeting acceptance rates by the main ecological journals and the progress of ecology. Ideas in Ecology and Evolution 5: 13-15.
(commentary here; corresponding article by L. Aarssen here)

St. John, M. G., Bellingham, P. J., Walker, L. R., Orwin, K. H., Bonner, K. I., Dickie, I. A., Morse, C. W., Yeates, G. W., and Wardle, D. A. (2012) Loss of a dominant nitrogen-fixing shrub in primary succession: consequences for plant and belowground communities. Journal of Ecology 100: 1074-1084.
(commentary here)

Inderjit; Wardle, D. A.; Karban, R. and Callaway, R. M. (2011) The ecosystem and evolutionary contexts of allelopathy. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 26: 655-662.

Wardle, D. A., Bardgett, R. D., Callaway, R. M. and Van der Putten, W. H. (2011) Terrestrial ecosystem responses to species gains and losses. Science 332: 1273-1277.

Estes, J. A., Terborgh, J., Brashares, J. S., Power, M. E., Berger, J., Bond, W. J., Carpenter, S. R., Essington, T., Holt, R. D., Jackson, J. B. C., Marquis, R. J., Oksanen, L., Oksanen, T., Paine, R. T., Pikitch, E. K., Ripple, W. J., Sandin, S., Scheffer, M., Schoener, T. W., Shurin, J. B., Sinclair, A. R. E., Soulé, M. E., Virtanen, R. and Wardle, D. A. (2011). Trophic downgrading of planet Earth. Science 333: 301-306.
(commentaries here)

Wardle, D. A., Hyodo, F., Bardgett, R. D., Yeates, G. W. and Nilsson, M.-C. (2011) Long-term aboveground and belowground consequences of red wood ant exclusion in boreal forest. Ecology 92: 645-656.

Kardol, P. and Wardle, D. A. (2010) How understanding aboveground-belowground linkages can assist restoration ecology. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 25: 670-679.

Wardle, D. A. (2010) Do ‘Faculty of 1000’ (F1000) ratings of ecological publications serve as reasonable predictors of their future impact? Ideas in Ecology and Evolution 3: 11-15.
(commentary here)

Walker, L. R. Wardle, D. A., Bardgett, R. D. and Clarkson, B. D. (2010) The use of chronosequences in studies of ecological succession and soil development. Journal of Ecology 98: 725-736.

Peltzer, D.A., Wardle, D.A., Allison, V.J., Baisden, W.T., Bardgett, R.D., Chadwick, O.A., Condron, L.M., Parfitt, R.L., Porder, S., Richardson, S.J., Turner, B.L., Vitousek, P.M., Walker, J., and Walker, L.R. (2010) Understanding ecosystem retrogression. Ecological Monographs 80: 509-529.
(commentary here)

Wardle, D. A., Bellingham, P. J., Bonner, K. I. and Mulder, C. P. H. (2009) Indirect effects of invasive predators on plant litter quality, decomposition and nutrient resorption on seabird-dominated islands. Ecology 90: 452-464.

Peltzer, D. A., Bellingham, P. J., Kurokawa, H., Walker, L. R., Wardle, D. A. and Yeates, G. W. (2009) Punching above their weight:  low-biomass non-native plant species alter soil ecosystem properties during primary succession. Oikos 118: 1001-1014.
(commentary here)

Tylianakis, J. M., Didham, R. K., Bascompte, J. and Wardle, D. A. (2008). Global change and species interactions in terrestrial ecosystems. Ecology Letters 11: 1351-1363
(commentary here).

Wardle, D. A., Nilsson, M.-C. and Zackrisson, O. (2008) Fire-derived charcoal causes loss of forest humus. Science 320: 629-629.
(commentary here)

Lagerström, A., Nilsson, M.-C., Zackrisson, O. and Wardle, D. A. (2007). Ecosystem input of nitrogen through biological fixation in feather mosses during ecosystem retrogression. Functional Ecology 21: 1027-1033.

Wardle, D. A., Bellingham, P. J., Mulder, C. P. H. and Fukami, T. (2007) Promotion of ecosystem carbon sequestration by invasive predators. Biology Letters 3: 479-482.

Wardle, D. A. (2006) The influence of biotic interactions on soil biodiversity. Ecology Letters 9: 870-886.

Fukami, T., Wardle, D. A., Bellingham, P. J., Mulder, C. P. H., Towns, D. R., Yeates, G. W., Bonner, K. I., Durrett, M. S., Grant-Hoffman, M. N and Williamson, W. M. (2006). Above- and below-ground impacts of introduced predators in seabird-dominated island ecosystems. Ecology Letters 9: 1299-1307.
(commentary here)

Wardle, D. A. and Zackrisson, O. (2005) Effects of species and functional group loss on island ecosystem properties. Nature 435: 806-810.

Nilsson, M. C. and Wardle, D. A. (2005) Understory vegetation as a forest ecosystem driver: evidence from the northern Swedish boreal forest. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 3: 421-428.

Wardle, D. A., Bardgett, R. D., Klironomos, J. N., Setälä, H., Van der Putten, W. H. and Wall, D. H. (2004) Ecological linkages between aboveground and belowground biota. Science 304: 1629-1633.
(cover picture here)

Wardle, D. A., Walker, L. R. and Bardgett, R. D. (2004) Ecosystem properties and forest decline in contrasting long-term chronosequences. Science 305: 509-513.
(commentary here; cover picture here)

Wardle, D. A., Yeates, G. W., Barker, G. M., Bellingham, P. J., Bonner, K. I. and Williamson, W. (2003) Island biology and ecosystem functioning in epiphytic soil communities. Science 301: 1717-1720.

Wardle, D. A., Hörnberg, G., Zackrisson, O., Kalela-Brundin, M., and Coomes, D. A., (2003) Long term effects of wildfire on ecosystem properties across an island area gradient. Science 300: 972-975.

Ettema, C., and Wardle, D. A. (2002) Spatial soil ecology. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 17: 177-183.

Wardle, D. A., Barker, G. M., Yeates, G. W., Bonner, K. I., and Ghani, A. (2001) Introduced browsing mammals in natural New Zealand forests: aboveground and belowground consequences. Ecological Monographs 71: 587-614.

Wardle, D. A., Bonner, K. I., Barker, G. M., Yeates, G. W., Nicholson, K. S., Bardgett, R. D., Watson, R. N. and Ghani, A. (1999) Plant removals in perennial grassland: vegetation dynamics, decomposers, soil biodiversity and ecosystem properties. Ecological Monographs 69: 535-568.

Wardle, D. A., Zackrisson, O., Hörnberg, G. and Gallet, C. (1997) Influence of island area on ecosystem properties. Science 277: 1296-1299.
(commentary here)

 Contact information:

Department of Forest Ecology and Management
Faculty of Forest Sciences
Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences
S- 901 83 Umeå, Sweden

Fax: +46 90 786 8166
Phone: +46 90 786 8471
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